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A diaphragm water pump, also known as a membrane pump, is a type of positive displacement pump that uses a flexible diaphragm to transfer fluids. Here are the principles of operation of a diaphragm water pump:

Suction stroke: During the suction stroke, the diaphragm is pulled away from the inlet side of the pump, creating a vacuum that draws fluid into the pump chamber.

Discharge stroke: During the discharge stroke, the diaphragm moves toward the inlet side, causing the fluid to be forced out of the pump chamber and through the outlet.

Valves: The diaphragm water pump typically has two valves, one on the inlet side and one on the outlet side, that control the flow of fluid through the pump. These valves are designed to prevent backflow and ensure that the fluid flows in the desired direction.

Actuation: The diaphragm can be actuated by a variety of mechanisms, including mechanical, hydraulic, or pneumatic systems. The actuation system moves the diaphragm back and forth to create the suction and discharge strokes.

Materials: The diaphragm and valves are typically made of materials that are compatible with the fluid being pumped, such as rubber or plastic.

Overall, a diaphragm water pump uses a flexible diaphragm to create a vacuum that draws fluid into the pump and then forces it out through the outlet. It is a simple and efficient pump design that is commonly used in a variety of applications, including water treatment, agriculture, and automotive industries.